Využití porézních organických polymerů v oblasti heterogenní katalýzy
The major groups of amorphous porous organic polymers (POP), namely, the polymers with intrinsic porosity, conjugated microporous polymers, and porous aromatic frameworks have been introduced. These materials differ in character of monomeric units and the methods of preparation. They can be used as adsorbents, chemosensors, luminescent materials or heterogeneous catalysts, due to their properties (large specific surface area, chemical stability, the possibility of functionalization etc.). The use of POPs in the field of heterogeneous catalysis is relatively wide and depends on the incorporated catalytically active centres. After the modification using metal ions or metallic clusters, these materials were used in some of hydrogenation, oxidation or condensation reactions. The materials can be used, after the modification by sulfonic functional groups, as the classic acid catalysts (e.g. for esterification). Analogously, they can be used for basic catalysis (e.g. Henry reaction, or Knoevenagel reaction) after the modification with amino-functional groups. Owing to the possibility of reuse (some materials more than 10 times) and excellent catalytic activity, the industrial applications of POP-based heterogeneous catalysts seems to be promising.